Laser Neurology: Groundbreaking Research
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Written by Curtis Turchin,M.A., DC   
Friday, 25 January 2013 02:52
laserneurologyChiropractors and the Nervous System
Chiropractors have always been interested in how subluxation affects the nervous system. DD and BJ Palmer commonly lectured about the wonders of chiropractic and how it could heal the injured nerves. Recently, chiropractors have been seen as leaders in the field of laser therapy and its effects on the central nervous system. This article will explore how this occurs and why it is important for doctors of chiropractic to understand this exciting new research.
What is Low-Level Laser Therapy?
Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a treatment that uses lasers or LEDs to stimulate or inhibit cellular function.¹  Laboratory studies find that LLLT can stimulate healing, alter cellular metabolism, and stimulate tissue proliferation.² 
Laser Has Been Proven
One of the newest trends is the overwhelming number of studies proving the value of laser therapy. There are over 2,000 positive studies and more than 250 randomized double-blind clinical trials that document the value of laser therapy with pain management, reduction of inflammation, and improved rate of healing.³  With this in mind, it is vital that chiropractors understand the latest scientific research regarding the newest and most versatile electrotherapy tool, cold laser, and how it fits into a modern practice. The first question I get from doctors once they are convinced that the use of laser works is, “How does laser compare to other modalities?”
Laser Compared to Ultrasound
When comparing laser and light therapy to ultrasound, research indicates that ultrasound has value, but laser has been shown to close wounds more effectively.4  Ultrasound tends to cause a slight retraction of hard and soft tissues, whereas laser causes a proliferation of these tissues.5  Thus, when the goal is wound healing, post-surgical rehab, or tissue strengthening, laser therapy has unique strengths above ultrasound. In summary, to break up old, fibrous scar tissue, I recommend ultrasound as the first phase followed by laser to stimulate healing and blood vessel development.
Laser Compared to Electrical Stimulation
When comparing laser therapy to electrical stimulation, research indicates that laser therapy provides as much or more healing stimulation.6  In addition, laser therapy appears to be equal to or more effective than acupuncture with electrical stimulation.7  However, electrical stimulation can provide quick pain relief, so it can be quite effective to use electrical stimulation while painting the area with laser. This appears to accomplish a synergistic effect.8  Thus, laser is unique in that it provides multiple benefits, including improved rates of healing, tissue proliferation, and analgesia, and it can be combined synergistically with other modalities.
Lasers in Chiropractic
The primary use of laser therapy in a chiropractic office is for the treatment of pain. The effectiveness of laser at pain management and the lack of serious side effects have been proven.9  We now know that laser can dramatically improve the function of the central nervous system as well.
Deep Laser Penetration
There is no question that clinicians who use lasers to treat the spine and extremities treat the spinal cord indirectly. If a doctor places an infrared laser on a patient’s back, six percent of the photons enter the spinal cord; thus, chiropractors are always treating deeper structures.10 For example, if a doctor places a laser over a patient’s sternum or lower ribs when they have costochondral pain, they are indirectly irradiating the heart and liver. There are recent medical studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects of treating the heart and liver with LLLT.11 12
Lasers Help the Central Nervous System
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain syndrome that was originally termed reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) and is characterized by excruciating pain following a very minor injury.13 CRPS is caused by the nervous system getting stuck in a sympathetic mode.14  It has been shown that laser therapy can heal many types of chronic neurological disorders, including CRPS.15

Spinal Cord Injury
Research also documents that laser can simulate spinal cord regeneration. It was found that when the laser was applied to the spine, it significantly improved the average length of axonal re-growth and increased the total number of axons after spinal cord injury. 16

How Does Treating the Brain Affect the Body?
Research documenting that treating the brain could affect the function of the whole body began in the 1970s. Research at UCLA School of Medicine established that descending inhibitory pathways can inhibit pain. This may explain how treating the brain, and even cranial adjusting, can have such powerful, full-body effects.17

Lasers, Depression, and Addiction
LLLT has been shown to be helpful for depression because infrared laser light produces natural opioids and serotonin in the brain.18 The best study on lasers and addiction was done on cigarette smokers. All of the patients who received laser therapy experienced a lessening of withdrawal symptoms and 92 percent of them stopped smoking.19

The New Frontier: Laser Brain Treatment
About five years ago, researchers began to document the value of directly treating the brain with lasers. The first studies in 2006 found that animals that had strokes and were treated with LLLT had a significant improvement in neurological function. 20 21 22

Lasers and Degenerative Brain Disease
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by progressive loss of motor function and death. Researchers found that by placing the laser directly on the skull, motor function was significantly improved. 23 Another recent study was performed on Parkinson’s disease patients. It was found that laser treatment normalized neurological activity and reduced Parkinson’s symptoms after a single, brief treatment.24

Major Medical Research

There is no question that clinicians who use lasers to treat the spine and extremities treat the spinal cord indirectly. If a doctor places an infrared laser on a patient’s back, six percent of the photons enter the spinal cord; thus, chiropractors are always treating deeper structures.

Harvard Medical School recently studied 10 patients with depression and anxiety. A 250 milliwatt LED was placed on the forehead just a few millimeters above the skin. The researchers noted a significant decrease in depression and anxiety that lasted for four weeks after only one treatment.25 Following this Harvard study, there have been more human studies that demonstrate tremendous benefits from laser therapy on the brain. In the second major human study, 660 patients received laser therapy applied to the skull. Researchers noted a favorable outcome after 90 days and found that the laser was able to penetrate about five inches. The study was performed at some of America’s best medical schools, including UC San Diego, Stanford University, Scripps Hospital, University of Massachusetts, University of Pennsylvania, and Boston University. 26

Wavelength and Dose
Research documents that laser therapy stimulates an increase in ATP, RNA/DNA synthesis, oxygen, and cell metabolism.27Also, it has been found that when treating almost any area of the body, treatment is ineffective if the dose is too low or too high.28 29

It is important that one consider dose because only three percent of the photons delivered to the forehead-scalp surface will reach the cortex.30

The value of using lasers to directly treat the brain is still in the experimental stage. Yet, it is being validated on human subjects by noted researchers in major medical schools and hospitals with quite dramatic clinical results. Based on the positive findings of these groundbreaking studies, I expect lasers to be an integral part of complementary neurological therapy in the near future. And because chiropractors have been trendsetters in the use of lasers and the nervous system, they should use this information to help them continue to be leaders in this field. Understanding the latest trends in medical research regarding laser and the central nervous system is the first step.

  1. Huang, YY, et al. Dose-Response. 2009;7(4):358.
  2. Karu TI, et al. Nonmonotonic behavior of the dose dependence of the radiation effect on cells in vitro exposed to pulsed laser radiation at 820 nm. Lasers Surg Med. 1997;21(5):485-492.
  3. Tuner, J., & Hode, L. (2004). The Laser Therapy Handbook. Grangesberg, Sweden: Prima Books.
  4. Demir, H. (2004). Comparison of the effects of laser and ultrasound treatments on experimental wound healing in rats. J Rehabil Res & Dev, Sept/Oct;41(5).
  5. Lirani-Galvão, AP (2006). Comparative study of how low-level laser therapy and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound affect bone repair in rats. Photomed Laser Surg, Dec;24(6):735-40.
  6. Medlicott, MS. (2006). A systematic review of the effectiveness of exercise, manual therapy, electrotherapy, relaxation training, and biofeedback in the management of temporomandibular disorder. Phys Ther, Jul;86(7):955-73.
  7. Bjordal, JM. (2007). Short-term efficacy of physical interventions in osteoarthritic knee pain. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials. BMC Musculoskelet Disord, Jun;22;8:51.
  8. Kato, MT. (2006). TENS and low-level laser therapy in the management of temporomandibular disorders. J Appl Oral Sci, Apr;14(2):130-5.
  9. Bjordal JM, et al. Low-level laser therapy for tendinopathy: Evidence of a dose-response pattern. Phys Ther Rev. 2001;6:91-99.
  10. Byrnes KR, et al. Light promotes regeneration and functional recovery and alters the immune response after spinal cord injury. 2005 Mar;36(3):171-85.
  11. Oron U, et al. Enhanced liver regeneration following acute hepatectomy by low-level laser therapy. 2010 Oct;28(5):675-8.
  12. Yang Z, et al. Low-Level Laser Irradiation Alters Cardiac Cytokine Expression Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Potential Mechanism for Laser Therapy. 2011 Feb 24.
  13. Albrecht PJ, et al. Pathologic alterations of cutaneous innervation and vasculature in affected limbs from patients with complex regional pain syndrome. Pain. 2006; 120:244-266.
  14. Wasner G, et al. Vascular abnormalities in acute reflex sympathetic dystrophy (CRPS I): Complete inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity with recovery. Arch Neurol. May 1999;56(5):613-20.
  15. Gibbs GF, et al. Unravelling the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome: Focus on sympathetically maintained pain. Clin Exp Pharmacol P. 2008;35:717-724.
  16. Wu X, et al. 810 nm Wavelength light: an effective therapy for transected or contused rat spinal cord. Lasers Surg Med 2009;41:36-41.
  17. Mayer DJ, et al..Analgesia from electrical stimulation in the brainstem of the rat, Science. 1971 Dec 24;174(16):1351-4.
  18. Hagiwara S, et al. Pre-Irradiation of blood by gallium aluminum arsenide (830 nm) low-level laser enhances peripheral endogenous opioid analgesia in rats. Anesth Analg. 2008 Sep;107(3):1058-63.
  19. Catherine M., et al. Low level laser for the stimulation of acupoints for smoking cessation: a double blind, placebo controlled randomised trial and semi structured interviews. Journal of Chinese Medicine, Number 86, February, 2008.
  20. Oron A, et al.. Low-level laser therapy applied transcranially to rats after induction of stroke significantly reduces long-term neurological deficits. Stroke. 2006 Oct;37(10):2620-4.
  21. Lapchak PA, De Taboada L. Transcranial near infrared laser treatment (NILT) increases cortical adenosine-5=-triphosphate (ATP) content following embolic strokes in rabbits. Brain Res 2009;1306:100-105.
  22. Rochkind S, et al. Increase of neuronal sprouting and migration using 780 nm laser phototherapy as procedure for cell therapy. Lasers Surg Med. 2009 Apr;41(4):277-81.
  23. Moges H, et al. Light therapy and supplementary riboflavin in the SOD1 transgenic mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). Lasers Surg Med 2009; 41:52-59.
  24. Trimmer PA, et al.Reduced axonal transport in Parkinson's disease cybrid neurites is restored by light therapy. Mol Neurodegener. 2009 Jun 17;4:26.
  25. Schiffer F, et al. Psychological benefits 2 and 4 weeks after a single treatment with near infrared light to the forehead: a pilot study of 10 patients with major depression and anxiety. Behav Brain Funct. 2009 Dec 8;5:46.
  26. Zivin J, et al: Effectiveness and safety of transcranial laser therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 2009, 40:1359-1364.
  27. Lapchak PA, et al.. Transcranial near infrared laser treatment (NILT) increases cortical adenosine-5=-triphosphate (ATP) content following embolic strokes in rabbits. Brain Res 2010;1306:100-105.
  28. Bjordal JM; et al.. A systematic review of low level laser therapy with location-specific doses for pain from chronic joint disorders. Aust J Physiother. 2003;49(2):107–16.
  29. Frigo L, et al. The effect of low-level laser irradiation on melanoma in vitro and in vivo. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:404.
  30. Wan S, et al. Transmittance of nonionizing radiation in human tissues. Photochem Photobiol 1981;34:679-681.
Curtis Turchin, M.A., D.C. is an expert in the field of laser treatment, low force adjusting and therapeutic exercise. He has published 4 books and more than 20 journal articles on chiropractic and laser therapy. He has lectured at many chiropractic colleges and state associations. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact him. Contact him at: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or 650-224-8789. His teaching website is:
A 21st Century Breakthrough in Ginseng Science: Enzyme Formulation
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Written by Dr. Ron Gilbert D.C. and David C. Konn   
Tuesday, 23 October 2012 20:53
inseng is one of the most well-known of all herbal remedies, and the history of ginseng in natural medicine goes back thousands of years, first mentioned in written medical journals in China over 2,000 years ago. Ginseng is considered the most powerful adaptogenic herb. In fact, ginseng has become the standard by which all other adaptogens are measured. This is why Suma is called Brazilian Ginseng, Maca is called Peruvian Ginseng, Ashwaganda is called Indian Ginseng, and Eleuthero Root is called Siberian Ginseng. None of these common adoptogens are ginseng, yet they are called ginseng. There are 4 types of actual ginsengs which have the plant classification Panax: Korean Ginseng (Panax CA Meyer), Chinese Ginseng (Tianchi Ginseng), American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and Japanese Ginseng (Ginex Japonicus).

ginsengroot3So what is an adaptogen? According to Webster’s Dictionary, “an adaptogen is a nontoxic substance and especially a plant extract that is held to increase the body's ability to resist the damaging effects of stress and promote or restore normal physiological functioning”. In medical terms, a highly efficacious adaptogen helps to bring the body into homeostatic balance.

How does Ginseng work?
Why has it been the leading herbal remedy for 2,000 years for such a broad range of conditions?

A simple answer is that when the body reaches a homeostatic state its ability to self-heal is optimized. This is no secret for a chiropractic physician. Through making adjustments and removing subluxations we allow the energy in the body to flow naturally and in balance.The result is the body begins to heal itself; this is how it is designed!

So how does Panax Ginseng bring the body into balance?
ginsengchart1In 1963 the unique active ingredient found only in Panax ginseng was discovered, plant triterpene saponins called ginsenosides. The number of different types of ginsenosides determines the range of the adaptogenic capacity of the ginseng. Different ginsenosides have shown in clinical research to have different effects, sometimes opposing effects. For example, some increase blood pressure while others reduce blood pressure, some increase blood glucose while others reduce blood glucose. The ginsenosides in combination with the 32 minerals, 14 amino acids, organic germanium and 7 vitamins and polysaccharides make a remarkable synergy that bring the body into balance.
A fully balanced ginseng has tremendous potential. It must be harvested after the optimal length of time, 4 or 5 years, processed as a whole root without peeling, allowed to dry without high heat steam and finally extracted using a low heat vacuum extraction. The result is a remarkably balanced extract with the potential to improve human health.

Ginseng and Chiropractic Care
High Quality Ginseng is an ideal complement to chiropractic treatment. It works synergistically to bring the body into balance and optimize the body’s self-healing potential.

Fermented Ginseng: A 21st century breakthrough in Ginseng Science
“The therapeutic potential of ginseng has been studied extensively, and ginsenosides, the active components of ginseng, are shown to be involved in modulating multiple physiological activities. These molecules exert their functions via interactions with steroidal receptors. The multiple biological actions make ginsenosides important resources for developing new modalities. Yet, low bioavailability of ginsenoside is one of the major hurdles that needs to be overcome to advance its use in clinical settings.” *Pharmacology of ginsenosides: a literature review Kar W Leung* and Alice ST Wong, CMJ Journal, June 2010.

The Challenge: Absorption
There are two main types of ginsenosides: the Protopanaxadiol “Diol Type” and Protopanaxotriol “Triol Type”. The Diol type ginsenosides have been shown in research to have the greatest medicinal efficacy. However, the Diol type ginsenosides have a larger molecular size. A scientific discovery in the late 90s showed that many of the ginsenosides were not being absorbed until they reached the large intestine in the ascending colon. A related problem surfaced in other clinical studies showing that many people were not experiencing full absorption. In one study less than 40% of the subjects were able to have full absorption of all ginsenosides.

The Solution: Create Ginsenoside Metabolites via Fermentation
As we enter 2012, more and more research on the benefits of fermentation as it facilitates digestion and absorption has been made available. This has also been part of the development of ginseng science.

In the 90s, research began in earnest to find a way to improve absorption. The first research was done in the late 90s and utilized human bacteria to create the metabolites of ginsenosides.

In the main area of research the metabolite form of the Diol type ginsenosides became known as “IH 901” or “Compound K”. Ginseng research then expanded.

In 2008 a superior process was developed using enzyme fermentation. The result was overwhelming. In a 2x2 crossover study with 24 healthy male subjects, the enzyme fermented ginseng extract vs. standard ginseng extract showed 15 times increased absorption, 4 times faster absorption and 4 times increased consistency of absorption. *Pharmacokinetic comparison of ginsenoside metabolite IH-901 from fermented and non-fermented ginseng in healthy Korean volunteers. ( Journal of Ethnopharmacology 139 (2012) 664– 667.)

Now, high absorption, fully-balanced ginseng is available in the market.
Good diet, high quality water, and exercise are all essential components of optimum wellness. We are facing an overwhelming amount of stress and toxicity in our environment. Our bodies need extra help, and the leading natural medicine for several thousand years has been made available using 21st century science.

Now, enzyme fermented ginseng extract can be fully absorbed to provide its balancing effect for bringing everyone’s body into homeostatic balance and optimizing wellness.

Research Opportunities
Today, Doctors can participate in a longitudinal case study with high absorption Enzyme Fermented Ginseng Extract conducted by the Clinic Research Institute.

Each participating physician receives over $450 worth of an enzyme fermented high-absorption ginseng (patent pending) for testing with 3 patients.

To learn more contact CRI at 877-532-8378 or go to

Ronald K. Gilbert, D.C., CCSP, NMD B.S. 1984, Va Commonwealth Univ. 1985, Diplomate, National Board of Chiropractic Examiners D.C 1986, Northwestern College CCSP 1988, Parker College, Sports Medicine 1992 , American Board of Chiropractic Orthopedics NMD 2002, St Luke School of Naturopathic Medicine,, ND 2002, Commission on Certification of Naturopathic Physicians 2002 ,100 hr. Post-Grad Internal Medicine, National University of Health Sciences.

David C. Konn, Double Major Psychology and Kinesiology, Macalester College, St Paul MN, Patent Holder CEO, Neuro Energies Inc. Regional President, Empowered Doctor Managing Director, Ilhwa North America President/CEO, Ilhwa NA Inc.
Increased Injury to Vertebrae Adjacent to Fused Segments
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Written by Dr. William J. Owens, D.C., D.A.A.M.L.P.   
Friday, 24 September 2010 11:02

Increased Injury to Vertebrae Adjacent to Fused Segments

Dr. William J. Owens, D.C., D.A.A.M.L.P.


When a clinician is evaluating a traumatically injured victim there are many factors to consider when determining prognosis and diagnosis. The most important are changes in the structure and function of the cervical spine including surgical interventions, specifically fusions. When determining causality in relation to a cervical spine injury in patients with prior surgical fusion, a very recent article published in Spine by Dang et al 2008 may shed some light on this complex scenario. Recognized internationally as the leading journal in its field, Spine is an international, peer-reviewed, bi-weekly periodical that considers for publication original articles in the field of spine care. It is the leading subspecialty journal for the treatment of spinal disorders. Only original papers are considered for publication with the understanding that they are contributed solely to Spine. The Journal does not publish articles reporting material that has been reported at length elsewhere.

This study specifically addressed how cervical fusion alters the peak strain of the Anterior Longitudinal Ligament (ALL) in the adjacent motor segments. Past hypotheses have pointed out that due to decrease in flexibility in the cervical spine, the segments above and below the fused area are more susceptible to injury. The study used cadaveric specimens because "anthropomorphic dummies lack accurate soft tissue representation. Only cadaveric specimens or mathematical models are appropriate to evaluate the ALL." pp 607. The ALL strain was tested at 8g whiplash.

This study quantified the increase in peak ALL strain during 8g acceleration simulated whiplash in a single-level and 2-level fusion in a healthy spine. "The increase in peak ALL strain in the adjacent motion segments is greater with 2-level fusion than it is with single-level fusion (40.8% vs. 15.5%)" pp610. In conclusion, this study demonstrates "Two-level fusion produced greater increases in peak ligament strain when compared with single level fusion at the adjacent motion segments." pp 610


Injury to the ligaments surrounding the cervical spine result in permanent injury with long term consequences. When diagnosing traumatically injured patients with a past medical history of surgical fusion, look to the areas adjacent to the fused segments for answers to chronic pain and muscle spasm.


Each issue, a clinical topic will be provided by Dr. William J. Owens of the American Academy of Medical Legal Professionals (AAMLP), which is a national non-profit organization comprised of doctors and lawyers. The purpose of the organization is to provide its members with current research in trauma and spinal-related topics to keep the professional on the cutting edge of healthcare. Members may also sit for a Diplomate examination and be conferred a DAAMLP. The organization also offers support to the individual member’s practice. To learn more, go to
or call 1-716-228-3847.


The above review is provided for educational purposes only. It is not designed or intended to reproduce or replace the authors work. Readers are encouraged to obtain full licensed versions of the article as determined by Copyright Law. For information on how to obtain a licensed copy please contact the Academy directly. 2008.

Whiplash Injury and Surgically Treated Cervical Disc Disease
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Written by Dr. Daniel J. Murphy D.C., D.A.B.C.O.   
Thursday, 25 March 2010 00:00

Key Points from Dan Murphy, D.C.

 1) The purpose of this study was to determine if whiplash injury predisposes to surgically proven cervical disc degeneration.

2) 11% of the whiplash-injured patients required cervical disc surgery, while only 5% of the control population required cervical disc surgery. Therefore, the cervical disc surgery rate was more than doubled in the whiplash-injured group.

3) Although both the whiplash injury group and the control population were age matched, the mean age for surgery in the whiplash-injured group was 45 years and for the control non-injured group it was 55 years. This 10-year difference was "significantly less."

4) "This study demonstrates an increased association between whiplash injury and cervical disc disease." These authors reference a number of studies that make these points:

A) Acute post-traumatic cervical angular kyphosis developed into frank cervical spine degenerative change within 5 to 7 years. (1974)

B) The prevalence of degenerative changes in the cervical spine in patients with whiplash in their 4th and 5th decade were equivalent to those found in the control population that were 10 and 20 years older. (1991)

C) MRI findings of cervical hyperextension injuries showed separation of the cervical disc from the endplate, anterior annular tears, occult anterior vertebral endplate fractures, and anterior longitudinal ligament injuries at multiple levels. (1991)

D) A study was "unable to demonstrate that psychosocial stress played any role in the outcome of whiplash injury." (1991)

E) Four studies "demonstrated that patients continued to experience symptoms after settlement of litigation, suggesting that financial gain played little part." (1964, 1965, 1975, 1990)

5) "These data suggest that the symptoms and signs of whiplash injury cannot be attributed solely to psychological factors and the organic pathology is a more constant explanation."

6) "This study provides further evidence that whiplash injury causes structural changes predisposing to premature degenerative disc disease."


Dr. Dan Murphy graduated magna cum laude from Western States Chiropractic College in 1978. He received Diplomat status in Chiropractic Orthopedics in 1986. Since 1982, Dr. Murphy has served part-time as undergraduate faculty at Life Chiropractic College West, currently teaching classes to seniors in the management of spinal disorders. He has taught more than 2000 postgraduate continuing education seminars. Dr. Murphy is a contributing author to both editions of the book Motor Vehicle Collision Injuries and to the book Pediatric Chiropractic. Hundreds of detailed Article Reviews, pertinent to chiropractors and their patients, are available at Dr. Murphy’s web page,

Cell Phones and Brain Tumors
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Written by Dr. Daniel J. Murphy D.C., D.A.B.C.O.   
Thursday, 25 February 2010 00:00

TITLE: Cell phones and brain tumors: A review including the long-term epidemiologic data

CITATION: Surgical Neurology, September 2009; 72; pp. 205–215

AUTHORS: Vini G. Khurana, Ph.D., F.R.A.C.S., Charles Teo, M.B.B.S., F.R.A.C.S., Michael Kundi, Ph.D.,

Lennart Hardell, M.D., Ph.D., Michael Carlberg, M.S.

TITLE: Cell phones and brain tumors: A review including the long-term epidemiologic data

CITATION: Surgical Neurology, September 2009; 72; pp. 205–215

AUTHORS: Vini G. Khurana, Ph.D., F.R.A.C.S., Charles Teo, M.B.B.S., F.R.A.C.S., Michael Kundi, Ph.D.,

Lennart Hardell, M.D., Ph.D., Michael Carlberg, M.S.

 Key Points from Dr. Dan Murphy

 1. This article has 68 references. An editorial comment ascribed to this study indicates that it is "the most comprehensive study and analysis to date of this topic."

2. These authors found 11 long-term studies in the PubMed database of participants using cell phones for ≥10 years.

3. "The results indicate that using a cell phone for ≥10 years approximately doubles the risk of being diagnosed with a brain tumor on the same ("ipsilateral") side of the head as that preferred for cell phone use."

4. "The authors conclude that there is adequate epidemiologic evidence to suggest a link between prolonged cell phone usage and the development of an ipsilateral brain tumor."

5. The power [and danger] generated by a cell phone will vary according to the amount of interference with the signal. Higher power is required when using a cell phone in a moving vehicle, within a building, or in an elevator.

6. "The output power [and danger] of the phone is generally set to the highest level during ‘handovers’ between networked base stations as a user moves from one geographic area to another or when signal interference is greatest."

7. Evidence presented suggests that cordless phones are also not safe.

8. Cell phones emit electromagnetic radiation only during calls.

9. Cell phone systems have been presumed to be safe because their longer wavelengths are nonionizing, lacking sufficient energy to break intermolecular bonds. Therefore, their increased cancer risk is not as a consequence of ionization.

10. "Science Magazine has recently acknowledged that there are several peer-reviewed studies from laboratories in at least 7 countries, including the United States, showing that cell phone or similar low-intensity electromagnetic fields can (contrary to expectations of non-ionizing sources) break DNA or modulate it structurally."

11."Irrespective of the type of phone, exposure is highest on the side of the head against which the cell phone is held and appears to be even higher in children owing to thinner scalps and skulls, increased water content of their brain, and lower brain volume."

12."Many independent laboratory investigations have suggested adverse biologic effects of cell phone radiation." (12 references)

13.The authors present evidence that cell phones can be DNA-damaging as a consequence of "non-thermal interaction between incoming microwaves and exquisitely sensitive oscillatory electrical processes found in living tissues." "This is akin to the reception of a clock radio being susceptible to interference from a nearby cell phone." This "oscillatory similitude may lead to genetic or epigenetic damage through increased local production of reactive oxygen species or free radicals." [Wow!]

14."There are several hundred studies that support the existence of low-intensity, non-thermal effects of cell phone radiation on biological systems. The consequences are mostly adverse: DNA single- and double-strand damage, changes in gene transcription, changes in protein folding, heat shock protein generation, production of free radicals, and effects on the immune system."

15."Taken together, the long-term epidemiologic data suggest an increased risk of being diagnosed with an ipsilateral brain tumor related to cell phone usage of 10 years or more."

16.There are also "significantly elevated odds for the development of ipsilateral parotid gland tumors among heavy cell phone users."

17.The Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States maintains comprehensive tumor incidence rates in the USA, and their data shows an increase in incidence of brain tumors of about 36% in less than a decade. This increase is not explained by an aging population (because these figures were age-adjusted) or by better detection.

18."The authors believe that the aforementioned epidemiologic and laboratory findings underscore the need for reassessment by governments worldwide of cell phone and also most radiation exposure standards and the usage and deployment of this technology. If the epidemiologic data continue to be confirmed then, in the absence of appropriate and timely intervention and given the increasing global dependence on cell phone technology, especially among the young generation, it is likely that neurosurgeons will see increasing numbers of primary brain tumors, both benign and malignant."


Dr. Dan Murphy graduated magna cum laude from Western States Chiropractic College in 1978. He received Diplomat status in Chiropractic Orthopedics in 1986. Since 1982, Dr. Murphy has served part-time as undergraduate faculty at Life Chiropractic College West, currently teaching classes to seniors in the management of spinal disorders. He has taught more than 2000 postgraduate continuing education seminars. Dr. Murphy is a contributing author to both editions of the book Motor Vehicle Collision Injuries and to the book Pediatric Chiropractic. Hundreds of detailed Article Reviews, pertinent to chiropractors and their patients, are available at Dr. Murphy’s web page,


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